Derive modulation signals from audio material

Dear list,

im trying to understand what possibilities there are to extract modulation signals/envelopes deriving from audio material. There are of course more obvious possibilities like envelope followers to derive amplitude contours.
But beyond that, are there less common ways that modulation signals could be extracted from audio signals or its spectrum? This can surely become quite a complex procedure as deriving “interesting” modulation signals from audio presupposes analysis.
If anyone has thoughts (or other questions) on this id be happy to hear!


Some of these audio anaylsis classes might be useful:

Amplitude, Loudness, SpecFlatness, SpecPcile, SpecCentroid, Onsets, BeatTrack2, BeatTrack2.


I would suggest googling “audio feature extraction” to get some inspiration.
E.g. the c++ essentia library ( has a lot of interesting stuff.

Thank you both for the references! Also, would surely join this list.